Cosmic Spacetime, Human Spactime
2015. 8. 13 ~ 14
KIAS conference room 1503
Chang, Tae Soon | KIAS | Philosophy
Tae Soon Chang is a research fellow for Transdisciplinary Research Program in Korea Institute for Advanced Study. After BS degree in Physics and MS degree in Philosophy, he obtained PhD degree in Philosophy from Université Paris VIII in 2014. His PhD work is focused on elaborating and comparing the concept of multiple time in three different domains: physics, philosophy and cinematic art. His research interest lies in contemporary French philosophy (Derrida, Deleuze, Badiou) and philosophy of art. He translated Alain Badiou’s Petit manuel d’inesthétique in Korean (Bimihak, Seoul: Ihaksa, 2012).
Dalissier, Michel | Osaka University | Philosophy
Michel DALISSIER is currently a Specially Appointed Research at Osaka University. His work focuses on French Phenomenology and Contemporary Japanese Philosophy. In 2014, he received an Habilitation to Supervise Research (H.D.R.), centred on the volume Metaphysics in Merleau-Ponty. He holds a PhD in Philosophy (2007, Shibusawa-Claudel Prize) published as Anfractuosity and Unification. The Philosophie of Nishida Kitaro (Droz, 2009). Co-editor of the anthology Japanese Philosophy (Vrin, 2003), his last book is entitled The Hexagone and the Archipelago. Henri Bergson read by a Japanese Philosopher (Kimé, 2015).
During, Elie | University of Paris Ouest | Philosophy
Elie During is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris Ouest - Nanterre and currently a member of the Institut Universitaire de France. He studied philosophy at the Ecole normale supérieure (Paris), the University of Paris-Sorbonne and Princeton University (USA). His PhD research dealt with the philosophical reception of relativity theory (“From Relativity to Spacetime: Bergson between Einstein and Poincaré,” 2007). He has since been exploring the notion of spacetime at the juncture of contemporary metaphysics, science, and aesthetics.
His publications include La Science et l’Hypothèse: Poincaré (Ellipses, 2001), Faux Raccords (Actes Sud, 2010), The Future Does Not Exist (B-42, 2014), as well as several contributions to the critical edition of Henri Bergson’s complete works for the Presses Universitaires de France (Durée et Simultanéité: à propos de la théorie d’Einstein, 2009, and Le souvenir du present, 2012). He also co-edited In actu: de l'expérimental dans l'art (Les Presses du Réel, 2009). Forthcoming (2015-2016): Temps flottants (Bayard), and Bergson et Einstein: la querelle du temps (PUF), Le cinéma de Bergson (Les Presses du reel).
On the issue of space-time, he has published several papers, including: « Philosophical twins? Bergson and Whitehead on Langevin’s Paradox and the Meaning of “Space-Time” », in Alfred North Whitehead’s Principles of Natural Knowledge, G. Durand & M. Weber (eds.), Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag, 2007; « Durations and Simultaneities: temporal perspectives and relativistic time in Whitehead and Bergson », in Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought, Michel Weber (ed.), vol. 2, Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag, 2008; « Occuper le temps », Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, n°4, december 2011; « On the Intrinsically Ambiguous Nature of Space-Time Diagrams », Spontaneous Generations, 6(1), 2012; « L’architecture espace-temps », in Art et Architecture, M.-A. Brayer (ed.), Orléans, Éditions HYX, 2013; « Cinematography and the extended “now”: from Bergson to video art », in BildBewegungen / ImageMovements, P. Rathgeber & N. Steinmüller (ed.), München, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2013; « Langevin ou le paradoxe introuvable », Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, n°4, december 2014.
Ghim, Zae-young | Seoul National University | Philosophy of Physics
Ghim, Zae-young received Ph.D. at Department of Physics, Seoul National University. He was a Research Fellow at Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, a Full-Time Lecturer at Seoul National University and a HK Research Professor at Ewha Womans University. Now He teaches history and philosophy of science at Korea Academy of Science of KAIST and at Seoul National University. His publication includes Newton and Einstein (collab.), Science in Film and Literature (collab.), Uncertain World (collab.), and articles "Quantum Field Theory and Asymmetry of Causation", "Bell’s Spaceship Gedankenexperiment and the Dynamical Perspective on the Space and Time", and "Can the Correlation Substitute the State?: Probability in quantum mechanics and Ithaca Interpretation". Also he collaboratedly translated E. P. Fischer's Die andere Bildung, Norbert Wiener's Human Use of Human Being and Cybernetics, as well as Elizabeth Grosz's Architecture from the Outside.
Lachièze-Rey, Marc | French National Centre for Scientific Research | Astrophysics
Marc Lachièze-Rey is a french astrophysicist, cosmologist and theorist at CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research), working in the laboratory AstroParticule and Cosmology (APC) in Paris. He also teaches at the Ecole Centrale Paris. His scientific publications include the topology of space-time, gravity or dark matter. He has written many popular books in which he associates the cosmological principle with the historical heritage and philosophy, including their achievements, challenges and current perspectives. He co-wrote with some other physicists such as Jean-Pierre Luminet, Etienne Klein and Edgar Gunzig.
Lee, Kang Young | Gyeongsang National University | Particle Physics
Kang Young Lee is a professor in Department of Physics Education at Gyeongsang National University, and now he is leading 2015 Annual Theme Research Group 'Cosmic Spacetime, Human Spacetime' at KIAS. He is trying to understand the fundamental structure of matters and interactions, and exploring how to probe them at accelerators or with other experiments. His research has focused on the Higgs boson, extra dimensions, dark matter, neutrinos, as well as the fundamental structure of gauge symmetry and quantum theory. He has published more than 60 papers such as "Direct search for heavy gauge bosons at the LHC in the nonuniversal SU (2) model" (2014), "The second Kaluza-Klein mode of CP-odd neutral Higgs boson in the minimal universal extra dimension model" (2012), "Partially Composite Two Higgs Doublet Model "(2006). And he is also the author of the books: LHC, the Frontier of Modern Physics(2014), From Pion to Higgs Boson(2013), and The Invisible World(2012).
Lee, Kyoo | The City University of New York | Philosophy
Kyoo Lee, an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the City University of New York (CUNY), is the author of Reading Descartes Otherwise: Blind, Mad, Dreamy, and Bad (2012) and the co-editor of Women's Studies Quarterly Issue on "Safe" (2011) and Critical Philosophy of Race Issue on "Xenophobia & Racism" (2014). Trained nomadically in European philosophy and literary theory, she works widely in the interwoven fields of the Arts & the Humanities, while traveling across disciplinary & spatiotemporal boundaries. Some of her recent academic recognitions include resident fellowships from the Mellon Foundation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS) and The CUNY Graduate Center, along with John Jay Faculty Research Excellence Award.
Currently, she serves as an Associate Editor of Hypatia and Derrida Today, and is also on the editorial board of Open Humanities Press. A member of PEN America and The Poetry Translation Center in London UK, she has also started writing for literary venues such as Poetry Foundation, The Volta and The White Review, among others, and since 2014 she has been on the summer visiting faculty of Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University, where she ponders on philopoetics with poets. website: www.kyoolee.net
Lee, Jeong-Woo | Kyung Hee Cyber University | Philosophy
Jeong-Woo Lee studied engineering and aesthetics for his bachelor's degree, and majored in philosophy in graduate school at Seoul National University. His MA thesis dealt with the comparison between Aristotle's movement theory and that of Galileo, and he recevied his Ph.D. degree with his work of Michel Foucault's archeology of knowledge. He has served as a professor at Sogang University, a director at Academy of Philosophy (철학아카데미), a chief at Assist Business Ethics Institute (어시스트윤리경영연구소), and now he is a professor at Kyung Hee Cyber University. He studies on life sciences in general on the basis of Bergson and Deleuze's philosophy, while seeking for constructing a philosophy of life including Ki-philosophy(기학) of Northeast Asia. Also, he focus on the work of ethics and politics for minorities with Foucault's political philosophy of the others. He published books such as Philosophy of Event (2003), Concept-Roots (2004), Devouring Books (2006), What Is Subject? (2009), History of World Philosophy 1 (2011), and New Conditions for Progress (2012) and he has translated Gilles Deleuze's The Logic of Sense (1999), Michel Foucault's The Archaeology of Knowledge (2000), etc.
Olkowski, Dorothea | University of Colorado | Philosophy
Dorothea Olkowski, BA, SUNY Binghampton (Philosophy), MA, PhD, Duquensne University. Dorthea Olkowski is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs and Director of the Cognitive Studies Minor. She is the former Chair of the Dept. of Philosophy and former Director of Women's Studies. Specializing in feminist theory, phenomenology and contemporary French philosophy, she has been a Fellow at the University of Western Ontario, Rotman Institute of Philosophy and Science and the Australian National University in Canberra. Her publications include Gilles Deleuze and the Ruin of Representation (University of California Press,1999) and Resistance, Flight, Creation, Feminist Enactments of French Philosophy (Cornell, 2000), as well as Feminist Interpretations of Merleau-Ponty (with Gail Weiss, Penn State University Press, 2006) and The Universal (In the Realm of the Sensible) Edinburgh University Press and Columbia University Press, 2007. Her most recent books, Time in Feminist Phenomenology (with Christina Schües and Helen Fielding) and Postmodern Philosophy and the Scientific Turn, are both forthcoming from Indiana University Press.
Yang, Hyun Seok | KIAS | Theoretical Physics
Hyun Seok Yang is a research fellow at Korea Institute for Advanced Study. His Ph.D. research, completed in 1999 at Sogang University, focused on quantum field theory and string theory. He has continued the research at several institutes such as Seoul National University, IEU, CQUeST, National Taiwan University and Humboldt University in Berlin. His current research is to formulate a background independent theory of quantum gravity based on the emergent spacetime picture. He firstly proposed the idea on the emergent quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime on 2005. Since then, he has clarified several aspects of the physics of emergent gravity in gradually deeper levels.
Anatomy of Spacetime
Hyun Seok Yang | KIAS | Theoretical Physics
The contemporary physics has revealed growing evidences that the emergence can be applied to not only biology and condensed matter systems but also gravity and spacetime. We observe that noncommutative spacetime necessarily implies emergent spacetime if spacetime at microscopic scales should be viewed as noncommutative. Since the emergent spacetime is a new fundamental paradigm for quantum gravity, it is necessary to reexamine all the rationales to introduce the multiverse hypothesis from the standpoint of emergent spacetime. We argue that the emergent spacetime certainly opens a new perspective that may cripple all the rationales to introduce the multiverse picture. Moreover the emergent spacetime may rescue us from the doomsday of metastable multiverse as quantum mechanics did from the catastrophic collapse of classical atoms.
Quantum Theory and Temporal Asymmetry of Causation
Zae-Young Ghim | Seoul National University | Philosophy of Physics
The causal asymmetry does not necessarily imply the conceptual impossibility of the backward causation. Using Newcomb’s problem, I discussed the possibility that the future event can bring about the past event. Following Schmidt’s extended version of Newcomb’s problem, I considered the world divided into two parts, composed of the “gigantion” and “tinion” respectively, and I discussed that the predictability of the classical world gives the logical possibility of the backward causation. This is also the case for the quantum world in which the world is not deterministic. To show the possibility of the backward causation for the quantum world, I examined Wheeler's delayed choice experiment with four specific settings. The consideration of Newcomb's problem and Wheeler's delayed choice experiment shows that Black’s bilking argument can be avoided and the backward causation is not logically prohibited. I also discussed the asymmetry of causation in the quantum field theory (QFT) from the concept of the Reichenbach Conjunctive Fork (RCF) and the Salmon Interactive Fork (SIF). As Reichenbach and Salmon argued, RCF has an intrinsic temporal asymmetry but it is not the case for SIF. I showed that the description of state in quantum field theory is given by the propagators or the two-point functions and the description of event by the LSZ reduction formula, using the LSZ and the Wightman formalism of general quantum field theory (GQFT). I argued that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Gedankenexperiment cannot provide an example of the backward causation if it is interpreted not as RCF but as SIF. I believe that while the description of state in QFT is SIF, that of event is RCF.
Merleau-Ponty on Space-time
Michel Dalissier | Osaka University | Philosophy
In this paper, I would like to ponder on the idea of space-time, in its philosophical specificity. Such an approach must satisfy three main conditions. 1) Firstly, it must be in some sense “metaphysical”, for it endeavours to meditate on the link illustrated by the hyphen, which physics seems to resolve mathematically, with the notion of a “spatiotemporal” reality, event, space, and continuum. 2) Secondly, such an approach shall not reduce, either scientifically or philosophically, space to time, or time to space, but explore their very in-between-ness and interweaving. 3) Thirdly, it has to rid itself of any priority of space over time (space-time) or of time over space (time-space), that would take place in the very mediation of space-time. To put it in a nutshell, is there a metaphysical approach able to restate the organic link of space-time, illustrated by the hyphen, so to speak, in its depth and fleshly thickness? I argue that the French phenomenologist and metaphysician Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) might give us some clues and tools in order constructing such a theory, and reconsider the articulation between cosmic and human space-time.
What's Dancing "Through the Curtained Time-in-between 가려진 시간 사이로"?
Kyoo Lee | The City University of New York | Philosophy
A Philotechnopoetics of the Interval (Gan, 간, 間) in Time/Space/Spacetime/Human/Heaven & Earth-Gan 시간/공간/시공간/인간/천지간
The concept of the interval, in an “instant,” for instance, is key to understanding space(-/+)time across cultures and histories as well as disciplines and languages.
Moving slow-speedily, translingually also, this talk explores some alter-native philotechnopoetics of space-time, drawing on insights from various experimental space-timers ranging from philosopher Gaston Bachelard on the ‘intervals of “unequal elasticity”” to artist Atta Kim on “all beings (that) disappear”; from Sappho, the poet who “in the middle of the night, (when) time passes, sleeps alone” to Yoon Sang, the singer-songwriter who slips “through the curtained time-in-between.”
—Still, all beings will have been there, no? Yes! But then, is there "there there” (Gertrude Stein)? We shall revisit some of the well-known, textured answers along the way, zooming in on the puzzling, kaleidoscopic interstitiality of space-time, starting with Good ol’ Aristotle, whose focus on the “now-point” remains telling, itself quite a timeless piece of philotechnopoetic thought “in” and “of the moment.”
Spacetime without Time
Marc Lachièze-Rey | French National Centre for Scientific Research | Astrophysics
I defend the idea that « time » is a composite notion, under the form of a harmonious synthesis of primary ones: datation and chronology, durations and causality. I first give precise definitions of these notions, which depend on the chronogeometry of spacetime. This allows us to examine their status in (any) spacetime. Without surprise, in the Newtonian spacetime, this synthesis corresponds to « universal time ». In the Einsteinian spacetime, our best description of the real world today, such a synthesis appears impossible. I interpret this obstruction as the incompatibility of any notion of time with the Einsteinian spacetime, and thus (as far as we know) with the real world. To be complete, I examine the status of various notions like « proper time », « universal time », « cosmic time », « causality » … which are sometimes (erroneously) confused with « time » in the literature.
What if Spacetime is Timespace?
Dorothea Olkowski | University of Colorado | Philosophy
The physicist Fotini Markopoulou has put forth a temporal model for Quantum Gravity because in quantum gravity, the timelessness of general relativity clashes with time in quantum theory. She therefore proposes that what does not fundamentally exist is not time but space, geometry and gravity. Such a model has a philosophical precedent in the work of Henri Bergson who likewise proposed that time is ontologically fundamental and that space arises as the extension of temporality. This talk will discuss Bergson’s cognitive theory and its relevance for the cosmological model proposed by Markopoulou.
Fold of Time: Dogen, Ozu, Deleuze
Jeong-Woo Lee | Kyung Hee Cyber University | Philosophy
Deleuze’s theory of time is composed of two dimensions: Chronos and Aion. The starting point of our discussion lies in proposing that these two dimensions can be united into one, according to the method of latitude and longitude as Plato recommend in Statesman. And we can give a name to this united plane: fold of time. Chronos is the folded time, and Aion unfolded time. This plane of folded and unfolded would be able to give us a vision that can see the various aspects of time from a synthetic perspective. This article will comprehend Deleuze’s theory of time from this plane of folded and unfolded, and explicate those of Ozu and Dogen in the light of Deleuze.
Flirting (with) Time(s): Multi-temporality in Contemporary Cinema
Tae Soon Chang | KIAS | Philosophy
It is useful to start with the theory of relativity for developing an idea of multiple time in cinema. In special (and general) relativity, time as the duration we feel is determined by worldline and its length called proper time. Two different worldlines represent two different time flows, which is the case of twin paradox. Multiple narrative line in film is comparable to relativistic worldline, but it is difficult to define a unity of narration. Another candidate, point of view, is also equivocal and too fragmentary. In the middle of the two, I suggest “timeline” as a concept which correspond to worldline. A timeline, composed of a group of points of view, draws a flow of time, often represented by a character. Cinematic timelines meet or cross one another, but also can have a slight contact or just coexist in a small spatiotemporal bloc. I call these situation “flirting”. In many cases flirting timelines have no or minimal interaction, but in some cases there interaction is greater than the case of crossing. Theory of relativity says almost nothing about flirting timeline interactions. Other physical theories like quantum field theory could help explain it.
Extreme Spacetime : The Black Hole case
Kang Young Lee | Gyeongsang National University | Particle Physics
I will present the Black Hole as an extreme example of the spacetime. First I explain the history and properties of the black hole. The black hole is a solution of the Einstein equation describing highly distorted spacetime.Then if we apply the familiar concepts for ordinary spacetime to the black hole, we face many embarrassed situation. I wish to discuss it.
Beyond spacetime : The Hand, the Eye, and the Trans-spatial
Elie During | University of Paris Ouest | Philosophy
George Herbert Mead observed that the adoption of relativity physics resulted in a growing divorce between the hand and the eye, between the experience of touch or action by contact (coupled with the comforting intuition of mass as a quantity of matter “under hand”), and the realm of distant, optical phenomena or motions subject to perspectival transformations. Yet the situation inherited from contemporary physics would be more appropriately described as a transfer of the hand to the eye, or a blurring of their respective domains. For the unprecedented unification of spatial and temporal dimensions achieved by relativity theory represents a triumph of the principle of local action originally associated with the field concept. Mediated by spacetime, all causal connections (including those brought about by such elusive objects as light rays and electromagnetic waves) must occur locally, from place to place. The prohibition of action at a distance finds its clearest expression in the limiting principle according to which no causal influence can be propagated at a speed greater than that of light. Connection takes time; no effects can be communicated between space-like separated events. Accordingly, in an ideally deterministic account of nature, propagations of influence are confined to particular neighborhoods of spacetime and can be trackable in a continuous manner, restricting the span of causal explanation to the particular contribution of factors located in the past light cone of each event. In that respect, locality and separability seem intimately related. By contrast, quantum mechanics is credited with reintroducing non-locality at the heart of physical theory, setting the stage for a renewed concept of causality—one that operates in some sense beyond spacetime. The possibility of non-local correlations has received much attention, but Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations already involve a split between the requirements of spacetime description (kinematic variables, sharp localizations in space and time) and those of causal explanation (dynamical laws of conservation of energy and momentum). Moreover, it can be shown that, in a way, relativity itself heralds the promotion of non-locality effected by quantum theory. By subverting the notion that localization in space and time is a simple matter (Whitehead debunked this fallacy of "simple location"), it carries in embryonic form a genuine dialectics of locality and non-locality. Thus, giving up the idea of the absolute configuration of a thing “at an instant,” incorporating the interplay of perspectives in the very definition of the physical object, leads to the destitution of the category of substance as an object given in space and time, acting upon other separate objects by way of local action. The philosophical and anthropological significance of this collapse of the mechanistic worldview cannot be overstated. But it calls for conceptual clarification, and must be set against the background of wider concerns regarding the articulation of the spatio-temporal framework with persistent trans-spatial (and trans-temporal) themes in contemporary physical discourse—and beyond. What does locality really imply? How does it relate to localizability and separability? Does non-separability amount to ubiquity? Does it entail holism? The idea of form itself—whether of an atom, an organism, or a mnemic theme—seems to involve a trans-spatial unity transcending its local actualization in space and time. How does it relate to our understanding of physical as well as biological and psychic individuation? These are some of the questions I wish to address as I survey different modes of trans-spatiality, drawing on converging philosophical suggestions from Whitehead, Merleau-Ponty and Ruyer.